Understanding The Inspection Procedures Of Pressure Vessels

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The inspection of pressure vessels is done for safety purpose and to avoid potential accidents on the floor. But do you have any idea how these intricate processes are executed by the NDT experts? Sometimes, inspections are also conducted at the very first stage of the vessels, that is, during the manufacturing process.

Usually, all kinds of inspection and testing on pressure vessels are done according to approved specifications, drawings and company standards. But they are executed while staying within the practices & rules applied by the governmental ordinances in a particular country or state.

The codes and specifications applied for a pressure vessel inspection include:

• Design code
• Approved drawings
• Purchaser’s standards
• Purchase order specification

Sometimes the applied codes and standard may match with the international standards too.

Material Inspection

At first, the raw materials are inspected on the pressure vessel to learn its type. As per the ASME Code, providing reports on material test is mandatory. It is covering all the components of a pressure vessel like the nozzle pipes, lines, heads, fittings, etc.

The AICIP pressure vessel inspector examines all the required certificates for compliance with specifications using appropriate drawings. It includes:

• Heat or Cast Number
• Chemical Composition
• Certificate Number
• Heat Treated Condition
• Mechanical Properties

The junior inspector witnesses the plate material identification based on the certificates. Based on the requirement they can also check the identification with the pressure vessel datasheet, material list and other specifications as mentioned in the certificates.

Visual Inspection

After inspecting the materials, visual inspections are conducted on the surface to find out probable defects and dimensional obstacle & complications. At this stage, the process includes:

• Records of all non-conformities
• Confirmation of satisfactory document review
• Record of tests witnessed

The Inspection Of Fabrication

After the visual and raw material inspection, comes the fabrication. Remember, this will start only if the previous results are satisfactory and meet the codes. The NDT expert checks the crucial points on the pressure vessel, based on the previous inspection and test plan.

Some business owners prefer to have stringent controls on pressure vessels due to heavy duty services. In such cases the inspection naturally grows more intricate. However, this depends on the inspection budget, which purchasers assign for inspection.

One thing that has to be kept in mind is that AICIP pressure vessel inspection can be done only if the inspectors are verified and certified by a reputed legal firm or the AICIP itself.


What Are The Benefits Of Warehouse Management System?

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Gone are the days of managing inventory in warehouses with pen and paper. Instead, the new age freight system relies on warehouse management systems to make managing inventory a lot easier. This system provides huge benefits to the clients too. So, let’s make it clear, what are the benefits of warehouse management system.

Reducing space associated costs

The rate of a freight service is usually determined on the weight, category and the space taken by your goods. The same rule is applied when the goods are taken to the warehouse. Thus, when inventory is managed appropriately, the costing for warehouse space can be saved. In other words, it enables accurate stocking, slotting and pulling of orders, giving companies the opportunity to determine how much of each item is truly needed. Therefore, overstock and under-stock can be significantly reduced.

Increases customer satisfaction and service

The benefits of a warehouse management system promotes customer satisfaction, thereby increasing the reputation of your company. It also allows you to reduce errors in fulfilling an order. For example, warehouse management system plays a major role in handling the goods while importing from China to UK. This is because, freight services care for your goods and thus, products are stored in a secured way.

Reduces security vulnerabilities

Security is another important feature enhanced by implementing warehouse management system. Unfortunately, there are some people in the world who try to steal or damage products intentionally. An effective warehouse management system keeps meticulous records of inventory, and the staff can ensure that no unauthorised person gains access. Furthermore, the security system utilises automated data capture, like radio frequency identification (RFID) tags that can effectively eliminate all cases of theft by keeping accurate inventory levels round the clock.

In a nutshell

Increase of demand for faster order fulfillment by consumers requires an effective solution to manage warehouses. As the number of competitors in the market is rapidly growing, surviving the specific industry is often a problem. Rather than muddling through endless paper trails and inefficiencies, you can optimise operations in warehouse management system. This means benefits of a warehouse management system can actually translate into real world savings and catalysts to a profitable bottom line.

Warehouse management system is a crucial consideration, especially if you are looking to increase your business’s reputation.

Defining Forensic Engineering And Failure Analysis

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Failure analysis on a metal is performed by systematic examination, analysis and testing of the failure or flaw, gathering information about the application, component and history, which is further followed by a detailed visual examination. Failure analysis is a part of nondestructive testing, and is brought about by magnetic particle testing, dye penetrant testing, low magnification, etc. High magnification examination and destructive testing are also sometimes applied like, sectioning the sample for Metallographic micro analysis, Chemical Analysis, Hardness testing, Mechanical testing and so on.

These tests can only performed by a certified welding inspection team in Melbourne.

Macro Examination

Macroetching is the procedure of etching a sample and evaluating it macro structurally at low magnifications. It is a very frequent technique used for evaluating steel products. There are many different procedures for rating a steel sample by graded series of photographs. The images show the incidence of certain conditions and is applicable to carbon and low alloy steels.

A number of different etching reagents may also be used depending on the type and process of examination to be applied. You should know that steels react differently to etching reagents because of variations and difference in chemical composition, heat treatment, method of manufacturing and many other factors.

Macro examinations are also performed on a polished and etched cross-section of a welded material. During the testing process, a number of features can be determined including the sequence of weld, weld procedure and qualifications tests. Any defect on the sample can be assessed for compliance with relevant specifications. It can be a slag, lack of weld penetration, porosity, lack of sidewall fusion and poor profile of a weld.

Micro Examination

Micro examination is performed on a specimen either cut to size or mounted in a resin mould. At first they are polished to a fine finish and then etched in an appropriate chemical solution prior to examination on a metallurgical microscope. Micro examination is performed to assess the structure of the material. It is also very common to examine for metallurgical anomalies such as third phase precipitates, excessive grain growth, and various other reasons. Many routine tests such as phase counting or grain size determinations are performed in conjunction with micro-examinations.

Forensic engineering and failure analysis of a metal are all high profile examinations, which are conducted to find out even the simplest flaw in a material component.

3 Important Advantages Of Maintaining A Neat & Clean Office

Advantages Of Maintaining A Neat & Clean Office

Whether you have a small office space or a large one, as a business owner, maintaining the cleanliness of a commercial property is one of your most important priorities. A clean and well maintained office can provide lots of advantages to a business, its employees as well as its owner. Hence, apart from focusing only on how to maximize the profit and serve quality work to clients, you must also think of how to maintain a well groomed office space. Some of the important perks of having a clean workplace have been stated below, have a look at them –

1. First impression

Having an impressive look of your office is something that is always appreciated. And if you own a business where your employees need to have face to face interaction with clients, then keeping the entire area clean and well maintained is a necessary task. It is always said that the first impression lasts for a long period of time. Thus, if a customer comes and finds an unattractive and unappealing office space, then automatically he/she will form a bad impression about your business and may also not want to make a deal with your company. So, in order to maintain a good image, proper upkeep of the entire place is definitely a bare necessity.

2. Provide health benefits to your employees

Every employee spends almost 25% of their time working in an office. As a business owner, it’s your duty to take care of the health of your workforce. Apart from providing them health benefit schemes, it is also mandatory to ensure a hygienic and clean working environment to prevent the spread of diseases and allergies.

3. Boosts work morale

It is also important for every employee to work peacefully in your office. And this can only be possible if they have mental peace. A well maintained office environment can boost up the mental health of all your workers and keep them happy throughout. Happy employees can work without any hassle and this will further help your business to boost the overall production.

All the above mentioned advantages can be experienced only if you maintain a neat and clean office environment. However, according to experts it is always advisable to hire a commercial carpet cleaning service provider in Fort St John who can do the job efficiently for you. So go ahead and appoint one for your office today.

The Complete Theory Of Pressure Vessel Inspections

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If you are not aware of the inspection process of pressure vessels and their tests, then you’re at the right place. You may want to review the pressure vessel inspection procedure, corresponding inspection and test plan.

The definition of pressure vessel

Pressure vessels are containers to contain fluids at different pressure for industrial usage. The pressure may be obtained from an external source, or by the application of heat from a direct or indirect source.

ASME Code Section 8

The construction code for pressure vessels is called the ASME Code Section 8. This code section addresses the mandatory requirements, non-mandatory guidance and specific prohibitions for pressure vessel materials, fabrication, design, examination, testing, inspection, certification and pressure relief.

ASME Code Section 8 has three divisions:

• Division 1 covers the pressure inspection up to 3,000 psi
• Division 2 has an alternative rule and covers up to 10,000 psi
• Division 3 can be used for pressure higher than 10,000 psi.

Also, ASME section is divided into three parts:

Subsection A consists of Part UG which covers the general requirements applicable to all pressure vessels. Subsection B covers specific requirements that are applicable to the various methods used in the fabrication of pressure vessels. It consists of Parts UW, UF, and UB, and deals with welded, forged, and brazed methods respectively. Subsection C covers specific requirements applicable to the several classes of materials used in pressure vessel construction. It consists of inspection dealing with carbon and low alloy steels, high alloy steels, nonferrous metals, cast iron, lined material and clad, cast ductile iron, ferritic steels with properties increased by heat treatment, layered construction, and low temperature materials, respectively.

Knowing these codes is very important as experts often say to conduct the testing through professionals who provide AICIP presurre vessel inspection in Melbourne.

  • Pressure Vessel Plate Material – You have to be careful when choosing Pressure Vessel Plate Materials, there are lots of requirements and specific prohibitions in the ASME code. Some of these requirements are plate specification, ASME and Non ASME plate material, inspection requirements and material test report.
  • ASME presuure vessel joint efficiences – ASME pressure vessel joint efficiencies are linked to the radiography testing grades, and there is concession for full radiography testing as per the UW-11(a) (5) (b) clause, which is a little bit confusing.

Thus, you need to call an AICIP pressure vessel inspector to understand every confusing code of an inspection process.
When safety matters, you must examine your pressure vessels twice in a year through certified pressure vessel inspectors.

All You Need To Know About LTL Shipping

All You Need To Know About LTL Shipping

When it comes to freight service, people are still not aware of several terms and processes used in the business. One such process is the LTL (Less-Than-Truckload).

In general, LTL is an initialisation, using the first letter of the three words. This means a shipment that does not require a full 48” or 53” trailer falls under the category of LTL. There are many carriers that specialise in this service providing residential pickups and deliveries, guaranteed services, freeze protection and transit.

Products are moved from point to point by a number of different modes of transport including rail, road, water and air. The movement of goods by truck offers shippers infinite flexibility due to relatively low cost. The general freight carriers offer two types of services

• Full Truckload (FTL) service
• Less-Than-Truckload (LTL)

While the FTL carrier moves full containers of a single shipment from just one customer, the LTL carrier moves goods from many different customers on one truck. This means LTL is more cost effective method of shipping than FTL.

Characteristics of LTL carriers

LTL carriers generally use van trailers which are covered or enclosed. There are also some refrigerated ones which offer temperature controlled trailers. It is important to note, that road freight services in Sheffield who offer LTL services will not accept shipments which do not fit into the trailer. The trailers that they use are of 53 foot and majority of them work with two tandem trailers.

How do LTL shipping rates work?

Rates in freight services are determined by class, weight, pick up and destination points. The same goes with LTL carriers. The cost may vary if any additional service is implied. Carriers offer shippers and brokers with various discounts from freight services. However, the amount of discount can be negotiated with the carrier.

Fuel surcharges are another factor in the costs of LTL shipping. It’s the fuel cost associated with the shipment. Fuel is updated on a weekly basis and is based on the national average of diesel.

The main factors that dictate LTL shipping rates are:

• Weight
• Distance
• Mode of transport
• Accessories

Now you must have understood what Less-Than-Truckload is, and would be able to avert furure misconception of road freight service. Just, remember that LTL is the weight taken which should be less than the truck and it is generally used for short term deliveries.

When Do You Need To Hire A Freight Forwarding Service?

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When business owners decide to export their products in a bulk amount, and that too on a regular basis, they soon confront numerous barriers in the process. In many cases, a specialist can help to overcome all these barriers. They are known as freight forwarders, a professional team of international shipping agents who tackle various obstacles on the way to sending shipments within the country or abroad.

What do they offer?

The services of a freight forwarder can vary between different companies but the main function of these specialised ‘postmen’ is to act as an intermediary between the client who is hiring them and various transportation services that are involved in getting the product overseas to the customer.

Depending on the final destination and the nature of the items to be shipped, they provide a safe and secured process to send the shipments. It includes professional handling, safe warehousing, quick delivery and customs handling. The freight forwarders may have to deal with many export and import issues that could be involved in the movement of the goods.

They are hired to send the products to the customers within a specific period of time and in an undamaged state. Some of the freight forwarders even provide client insurance services to make sure that the items are safeguarded from accidents or damage.


Freight forwarders provide protective packaging on their products for exporting. Normal packaging that are used for shipping within the country may not be sufficient for extended transportation where the items may be either loaded in a container or loaded/unloaded several times along the route. The items may be allowed to be stored in environments where extreme temperatures or weather might be experienced. The freight forwarding team knows how to pack an item depending on the media of transportation.


Documentation is a crucial part of a shipment that is to be sent overseas. There are a number of documents that the freight forwarder needs to prepare for the shipment and that requires the knowledge of a specialist.

  • Commercial Invoice – The invoice is the bill for the goods from the seller to the buyer. It can be used to determine the true value of goods when assessing the amount of customs duty.
  • Inspection Certificate – This document may be required by the customers to understand whether the goods are inspected or tested before receiving.

Freight forwarders are a balancing act between customers and shippers and a professional way of communicating with international countries.